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SCI医学论文写作技巧
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简明SCI期刊医学论文撰写手册

第一版(2010年9月)前言

      医学论文设计水平的新颖性和创新性,是决定撰写的医学论文能否被SCI医学杂志编委和主编认同的第一门道;医学论文撰写水平的逻辑性和规范性,则是决定撰写的医学论文能否被SCI医学杂志接受的最终门道。发表SCI期刊医学论文的语言是英语,对于母语是非英语的中国临床医生,论文的英语母语化是一大难关。只有越过这些门道和难关,撰写的医学论文才能成功地发表在SCI医学杂志上。

尤其是中国的临床医生,在繁忙的医疗工作之余,还要从事科研工作。其中,在SCI医学杂志上发表论文是评判临床医生科研水平最重要的标准之一。

简明SCI期刊医学论文撰写手册(简称手册)旨在简要的、纲领性的介绍SCI期刊医学论文撰写最规范的格式和最基本的技巧,该手册主要适用于希望从事科研工作的临床医生而编写的。也适用于医学院校在读的硕士生和博士生。对其他从事生命科学研究的工作人员也有一定的帮助。

据悉,这是我国第一部介绍SCI期刊医学论文撰写手册(第一版),难免挂一漏万,望读者不吝踢教()。我们在获取读者的意见反馈后,将进一步更新和完善再版手册。

   目录

一、Science Citation Index (SCI) 基本知识

二、Impact factor (IF) 基本知识

三、SCI期刊医学论文简述

四、SCI期刊医学论文的各论

1、    标题(Title)

2、    摘要(Abstract)

3、    导言(Introduction)

4、    实验和方法(Experiments and methods)

5、    结果(Results)

6、    讨论(Discussion)

7、    致谢(Acknowledgements)

8、    参考文献(References)

9、    图说明(Figure Legends)

一、ScienceCitation Index (SCI)基本知识

1、科学引文索引(ScienceCitation Index, SCI)

1873年,著名Shepard's引用是规范引用的方法之一。1960年,EugeneGarfield's科学情报研究所在杂志上发表第一部引用索引论文,该引用索引最先开始应用于引文索引(ScienceCitation Index,SCI),随后扩展到社会科学引文索引(SocialSciences Citation Index,SSCI)和艺术与人文科学引文索引(Artsand Humanities Citation Index,AHCI)。截至2006年,出现了众多其他数据来源,例如谷歌学术搜索,这些学术搜索侧重于统计覆盖100个学科3700个世界领先科技期刊的基本数据,从而克服了信息超载。

1960年,科学情报研究所(Institutefor Scientific Information,ISI)于编制了SCI,该研究所目前为美国汤姆森所有。网络版科学引文索引(增强版科学引文索引)涵盖6400世界领先的科学和技术类期刊,其中绝大多数为英语期刊。用户可通过知识网中科学数据库网在线使用这些资源。(光盘版和印刷版覆盖期刊较网络版少)。通过网络版数据库,用户可以检索出任何特定的论文被其后的那些论文所引用,或任何特定作者的论文被引用,甚至可以知道哪些是被引用频率最高论文。(图书馆支付金额决定其用户实际使用网络版科学引文索引的年限)。

2、发展历史

1965年,在一篇经典论文中,Derek J. de SollaPrice阐述了SCI作为科学论文网络的内在特征。当互联网上开始公布SCI时,引用和被引用之间呈动态关系。1972年,社会科学引文索引成为首批加载到对话系统中的数据库之一。随着CD- ROM的发展,网络和论文检索之间的连接变得更加紧密,通过使用书目耦合(M. M.Kessler)即能够查找所需相关的记录。1973年,HenrySmall的关于联席引文分析的经典著作出版,联席引文分析是一个自我组织的分类系统,其引领了文档聚类实验,并最终形成科学图集,即后来所谓的科学研究评论。

SCI还发行了一份公布期刊名称的目录文件,称为专题选粹服务(SDI),在以个人化需求为导向的基础上定期更新文献检索,通过广泛使用该项服务,从而紧跟文献发展进程。1965年,SDI与SCI结合使引文引用首次可以经过自动主题引文提示完成,该引文提示已有ISI个人电子版;并且,目前几乎所有文献数据库和大部分的电子期刊均具有该功能。SCI/SSCI不仅包括传统的自然语言检索,还包括作者和引文检索。因此,用户可以通过作者,论文或书籍引用搜索任何新的论文。并可通过使用杂志名称,获得个性化的目录网页。

1965年, Drexel 大学的RalphGarner阐述了学术论文的内在特征与全球引文网络固有的图形拓扑性质。19世纪前期,通过引用计量将期刊进行分类,现行的科学期刊系统计量方法是由科学信息研究所的EugeneGarfield开创的针对科技期刊的一种测量系统,通过引文数来排名期刊,同时率先通过使用这些计量方法将作者和论文进行排名。1965年,在一份具有里程碑意义的论文中,Garfield和IrvingSher通过对一系列诺贝尔及其他奖项论文进行研究后,阐述了引文频次与卓越性之间的相关性,例如,诺贝尔奖获得者发表论文数量5倍于平均水平,并且他们的论文被引用频率也是平均水平的30至50倍。影响因子是常用的衡量期刊影响力的方法,某期刊前两年所有文章被引用的次数除以前两年该期刊所有文章数量即为这年该期刊的影响因子。由于特定目的,该种衡量方式被广泛使用,但单独通过这种方法对作者或论文进行排名,还具有一定的争议性。

1964年,在关于DNA发展的早期研究中,通过引文分析,Garfield和Sher开始史料編纂法的研发工作,是科学历史上最重要的历程。这项工作后来由E.Garfield,海洋生物学研究所的A. I.Pudovkin、俄罗斯科学院、教学中心、伊斯托明和华盛顿州立大学展开,并在2002年成功开发了HistCite软件。

1998年,Giles,Lawrence和Bollacker推出独立引文索引,并启用针对任何数字学术和科学文献引用的自动提取与组合算法。以往的引文是一个手动过程,并且只提供给那些特定的组织使用,如中央情报局。而现在,普通用户也可以通过电脑进行任何学术领域、科学领域、文献领域的引文萃取,这致使需要建立新的公共系统和自动引文索引,最早的自动引文索引是CiteSeer(其后为CiteSeerX,Cora),最新为Rexa。这些自动引文索引主要集中在计算机和信息科学领域,但都被后来大规模的学术网域引文系统替代,如谷歌学术和以前的微软学术。经过仔细的抽样统计,这种自主引文索引存在约10%误码率,故其在引文聚类提取方面尚不完善。这就造成了诸如AnnArbor, Milton Keynes和WaltonHall等被误认为具有大量的学术著作。同时,应该指出的是,SCI旨在通过纯粹的程序方法甚至是以前的记载来创建自动引文索引的做法具有相似程度的误差。

三、SCI期刊医学论文简述

SCI期刊医学论文主要组成部分:标题 (Title)、摘要 (Abstract)、导言 (Introduction)、实验和方法(Experiments and methods)、结果 (Results)、讨论 (Discussion)、致谢(Acknowledgements)、参考文献 (References)、图说明 (FigureLegends)等。各种SCI期刊对医学论文主要组成部分稍有差异。

对于中国临床医生而言,在从事科研工作和撰写SCI期刊医学论文的过程中,以下三大难关决定着从事科研工作的中国临床医生所撰写的医学论文是否能被SCI期刊的编委和主编接收,最终在SCI期刊上发表医学论文。

 

      第一大难关:SCI期刊医学论文设计水平是否新颖性和创新性,决定所撰写的医学论文能否被SCI医学杂志编委和主编认同。

 

      第二大难关:SCI期刊医学论文撰写水平是否逻辑性和规范性,决定所投稿的医学论文能否被SCI医学杂志接受。

 

      第三大难关:SCI期刊医学论文语言水平是否达到英语母语化,决定所审阅的医学论文能否在SCI期刊最终发表。

 

四、SCI期刊医学论文各论

 

1、        SCI期刊医学论文标题 (Title)

 

可以是完整的句子,也可以是非完整的句子。

 

完整的标题句子,划线部分为动词。

例如:

C1 inhibitor prevents endotoxin shock via a directinteraction with lipopolysaccharide (From Journal ofImmunology).

 

非完整的标题句子,主要是无动词。

例如:

C1 inhibitor-mediated protection from sepsis. (From Journal ofImmunology)

2、摘要 (Abstract)

SCI期刊医学论文摘要是对医学科研项目的整个概括,一般只有一个段落,约为200-250字数。摘要内容由以下四部分组成。

第一部分:引言并提出问题:一般由1-2句进行概括,阐述已公认结论并与此医学科研项目紧密相关,提出尚未解决的问题或需进一步探索的问题。

例如:

C1 inhibitor (C1INH) is beneficial in animal models ofendotoxemia and sepsis. However, the mechanism(s) of C1INHprotection remain(s) ill-defined. (From Journal ofImmunology)

第二部分:目的并提出方案:一般由1句进行概括,提出此医学科研的主要目的和解决方案。

例如:

To further characterize the potential LPS-binding site(s)within the amino-terminal domain, mutations were introducedinto C1INH at the three N-linked glycosylation sites and at thefour positively charged amino acid residues. (From Infection andImmunity)

第三部分:结果分层展示:由5-7句进行概括,对结果进行逐步性简洁概括,或在描述结果的句中引入所采用的主要方法和实验途径。分层描述可以是从动物→细胞→分子,也可以是分子→细胞→动物,也可以是细胞→分子→动物。

例如(动物→细胞→分子):

In this study, we demonstrated that both active C1INH andreactive center-cleaved, inactive C1INH protected mice fromlethal Gram-negative endotoxemia.  Both formsof C1INH blocked the LPS-binding protein-dependent binding ofSalmonella typhimuriumLPS to the murine macrophage cellline, RAW 264.7, and suppressed LPS-induced TNF-a mRNAexpression.  Inhibition of LPS binding to RAW264.7 cells was reversed with anti-C1INH Ab and was more efficientwhen C1INH was incubated first with LPS rather than with the cells.C1INH also suppressed LPS-induced up-regulation of TNF-a mRNA inwhole human blood.  The interaction of C1INHwith LPS was directly demonstrated both by ELISA and bynon-denaturing PAGE, but deletion of the amino-terminal 97-aaresidues abrogated this binding.  (From Journal ofImmunology)

例如(分子→细胞→动物):

In this study, we first identified that a cleaved fragmentwithin the major part of the amino-terminal domain in invitro proteolytic analysis of C1INH had an ability to bind toLPS.  We synthesized several peptides overlappingthe C1INH cleaved fragment.  Among these syntheticpeptides, a 13-mer derivative peptide at position from 18 to 30,named N2(18–30), exhibited the most powerful anti-endotoxinactivity in vitro, enlightening that it was most strong atbinding to LPS, inhibiting the interaction of LPS with LPS-bindingprotein (LBP), blocking LPS binding to CD14+ cells, andsuppressing production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a by murinemacrophages, RAW 264.7. In the murineendotoxin shock model, the peptide N2(18–30) protected micefrom LPS-induced lethal septic shock by inhibiting macrophageactivation.  (Biochemical and Biophysical ResearchCommunications)

第四部分:得出结论并提出目标:由1-2句进行概括,对整个结果进行总结是概述,依据结果设想医学科研的意义。

例如:

Therefore, these studies demonstrate that C1INH, inaddition to its role in suppression of LPS-mediated macrophageactivation, may play an important role in the prevention ofLPS-mediated increased vascular permeability, endothelial cellinjury, and multiple organ failure.  (FromBlood)

3、导言 (Introduction)

SCI期刊医学论文的导言主要是围绕标题的关键字进行概括性编写。一般有3-5段落组成,前段落主要是围绕标题的关键字进行概括性描述,最后一段落是对SCI期刊医学论文的概括性总结。

例如:

标题是C1 inhibitor prevents endotoxin shock via adirect interaction with lipopolysaccharide

SCI医学论文的导言可以基本是由以下几段落组成:

第一段落:描述gram negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide的医学生物学功能和它与Endotoxin shock的关系.

例如:

Lipopolysaccharide is a major constituent of the outermembrane of Gram-negative bacteria and is a key molecule in thepathogenesis of Gram-negative endotoxemia, sepsis, and septicshock (1).  Gram-negative endotoxemia isaccompanied by contact system activation, complement activation,production of cytokines, and other evidence of unregulatedinflammatory responses (2, 3).  LPS activatesmononuclear phagocytes to produce and release inflammatorymediators, of which TNF-a appears to be very important for thedevelopment of endotoxin shock (4). LPS interacts with theLPS-binding protein (LBP) (4) and transfers LPS to CD14 (5–8).  The formation of LPS-CD14 complexes initiatesintracellular signaling by binding to Toll-like receptors expressedon mononuclear phagocytes and other cells (9). When pure LPS or bacterial outer membrane fragments are injectedinto the bloodstream, a large fraction of the LPS is cleared by theliver within 10 min (10, 11), whereas most of the remaining LPSbinds rapidly to plasma proteins, such as lipoproteins, whichinhibit its biologic activity (12–15). (From Journal ofImmunology)

第二段落:描述已得出的结论即C1 inhibitor的医学生物学功能和它与炎症的关系。

例如:

C1 inhibitor (C1INH) is the only inhibitor of theclassical complement pathway proteases, C1r and C1s (16), and isthe major inhibitor of factor XII and prekallikrein of the contactsystem (17, 18).  The complement system has beenimplicated in both the pathogenesis of, and protection from,endotoxin shock (19). The contact system also appears toplay a role in the mediation of septic shock (20). Levels ofproteolytically inactivated C1INH are increased in fatal septicshock, which suggests an increased turnover and a relativesecondary deficiency of biologically active C1INH (21). C1INH canbe inactivated by limited proteolytic cleavage by elastase releasedfrom activated neutrophils (19, 22). The inactivation of C1INH mayoccur locally in inflamed tissue and thereby contribute toincreased local complement activation (22).  Thedirect biologic effects, if any, of inactivated C1INH remainunknown.  Therapy with C1INH has been shown toimprove outcome in several animal models of sepsis (19,23–27). In addition, preliminary data suggest that C1INH may havebeneficial effects in septic shock in humans(19).  (From Journal of Immunology)

第三段落:描述此SCI医学论文已得出的总结性结果。

例如:

In this study, we demonstrated that native, active C1INHand reactive center-cleaved, inactive C1INH (iC1INH) protected micefrom lethal Gram-negative endotoxemia.  Thisprotection was associated with inhibition of LPS-triggeredmacrophage expression of TNF-a mRNA. Furthermore, C1INH interactsdirectly with LPS, and this binding appears to be a function of theamino-terminal mucin domain of the protein. These data provideevidence that C1INH, in addition to its function as a serineprotease inhibitor, serves as an anti-inflammatory effector viathis new mechanism.  (From Journal ofImmunology)

4、实验和方法 (Experiments and methods)

SCI期刊医学论文的实验和方法的部分是呈现已使用主要实验和方法,每一实验方法为一段落,段落层次依据结果层次,如实验方法有引用文,此实验方法只需简洁描述。

Quantification of F-actin pool by spectrofluorometry

F-actin in HUVECs was measured by spectrofluorometry asdescribed (Chakravortty et al.,2000).  HUVECs (1×105cells/well) were seeded in 12-well plates in 1ml of endothelialcell medium for 48 h. The cells were incubated with LPS (1 µg/ml)in the presence of iC1INH (100–150 mg/ml) or C1INH (100–150 µg/ml)for 6 h.  After washing in buffer A (75mM KCl, 3mMMgSO4, 1mM EGTA, 1mM imidazole, 0.2mM dithiothreitol, 10 µg/mlaprotinin, and 0.1mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride), the cells werefixed with 3.7% formaldehyde for 15 min.  Thecells were permeabilized with Buffer A containing 0.1%Triton X-100for 5 min, stained with N-phallicidin (0.3µmol) for 20 min, andextracted with methanol at −20 ◦C overnight. Extracts were harvested into cuvettes. Fluorescence was measured at a 465 nm excitation and 535 nmemission and expressed in arbitrary fluorescence units (AFU) permilligram of total cell protein. (From Molecular Immunology)

有必要将主要试剂列为一段落内容并放在第一段落,主要试剂如细胞系、抗体、动物等要以括号的形式列出公司、地点或国家。

例如

C1INH was obtained from Advanced Research Technologies (SanDiego, CA). LPS from Salmonella typhimurium, fluoresceinisothiocyanate (FITC)–conjugated LPS from Salmonellatyphimurium, Chicago sky blue dye 60B, and Evans blue dye werepurchased from Sigma Chemical (St Louis,MO).  The apoptotic DNA Ladder Kit waspurchased from Roche Diagnostics (Indianapolis,IN).  (From Blood)

5、结果 (Results)

SCI期刊医学论文的结果一般有3-5个亚标题,每段主要内容由四部分组成:导言、目标和实现目标的手段、结果描述、结论总结。完整的基本结构与摘要相似。

导言:阐述他人已证实并公认与此医学科研项目紧密相关的结论;阐述自己与已以往的原始结果或证实公认与此医学科研项目紧密相关的结论。

例如:

The binding of LPS or LPA to LPS-binding proteins isdependent on the interaction of the phosphate groups on LPAwith specific positively charged residues within the protein (13,15, 22, 25, 33, 47, 49, 55). We previouslydemonstrated that in the case of C1INH both N-linkedglycosylation and its amino-terminal domain are required for itsinteraction with LPS (28, 29).  (Infection andImmunity)

目标和实现目标的手段:对主要目的和解决方案进行概括性描述。

例如:

To determine whether C1INH blocked LPS-inducedendothelial barrier disruption and plasma leakage, weinvestigated in vitro transendothelial flux in response to LPSin the presence and absence of C1INH.  (FromBlood)

结果描述:对结果进行逐步性描述,在描述结果的句中引入所采用的主要方法和实验途径。

例如:

C57BL/6J mice were injected with a lethal dose of LPS (20mg/kg), either in the presence or absence of C1INH (200µgintraperitoneally). Vascular permeability wasevaluated 5 hours after a lethal dose of LPS administration.Challenge with LPS resulted in approximately 10-, 5-, 2-,and 4-fold increases in the microvascular permeability index inlungs, heart, liver, and intestine, respectively. Treatment with C1INH resulted in significant reductions ofpermeability in the lung, heart, and intestine (Figure7).  (From Blood)

结论总结:对整个结果进行总结是概述。

例如:

These studies indicate that C1INH suppresses LPS-inducedmicrovascular permeability in multiple organs. (From Blood)

6、讨论 (Discussion)

SCI期刊医学论文的讨论是依据已得出的结果,紧密地联系标题的关键词进行书写。

例如:

当标题是C1 inhibitor prevents endotoxin shock via a directinteraction with lipopolysaccharide

当结果是(1) C1INH protection from lethal endotoxinshock;(2)C1INH blocks LPS binding to macrophages;(3)Interaction of C1INH with LPS; (4)The C1INHamino-terminal domain is responsible for the interaction withLPS.

写讨论的段落和内容可以是:

第一段:主要描述C1INH和Endotoxin shock的关系

第二段:主要描述LPS生物学功能和C1INH对LPS的影响

第三段:主要描述C1INH分子和LPS分子相互作用的关系

第四段:主要描述无生物学活性的C1INH和Endotoxin shock的关系

第五段:主要描述其它可能的因素对C1INH和LPS关系的影响

第六段:主要描述C1INH结构和生物学功能与LPS的关系

第七段:主要概述性总结。

7、致谢 (Acknowledgements)

SCI期刊医学论文的致谢有以下几种方式,例如:

This work was supported by U.S. Public Health Service GrantsHDXXXXX and AIXXXXX from the National Institute of Child Health andHuman Development.

We thank Dr. Chester Waxman and Dr. Eileen Birdwell-O’Donnell forcritical review of this manuscript.

We thank Dr. David J. Brown for preliminary RNase H digestionexperiments.

Portions of this work were presented at the 19th InternationalComplement Workshop, September 22–26, 2002, Palermo, Italy.

8、参考文献 (References)

在编写SCI期刊医学论文的参考文献过程中,重点参考每种SCI期刊的作者信息(Information forauthor)或作者指南(Author Instructions)的介绍。参考文献来源主要引用杂志、会议资料、出版书籍。

引用杂志,例如:

Poltorak, A., X. He, I. Smirnova, M. Y. Liu, C. van Huffel, X. Du,D. Birdwell, E. Alejos, M. Silva, C. Galanos 1998. Defective LPSsignaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: mutations in theTlr4 gene. Science 282:2085.  (From Journalof Immunology)

Goldblum SE, Brann TW, Ding X, Pugin J, and Tobias PS.Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein and soluble CD14 functionas accessory molecules for LPS-induced changes in endothelialbarrier function, in vitro. J Clin Invest. 1994; 93: 692-702. (FromBlood)

会议资料,例如:

Schapira, M., Scott CF, and Colman RW. 2002 Contribution of plasmaprotease inhibitors to the inactivation of kallikrein in plasma.The 19th International Complement Workshop, Palermo, Italy.

引用出版书籍,例如:

Strobel HW, Hodgson AV, and Shen S 1995 NADPH cytochrome P450reductase and its structural and functional domains, in CytochromeP450: Structure, Mechanism, and Biochemistry (Ortiz de MontellanoPR ed) pp 225–244, Plenum Press, New York.

9、图说明 (Figure Legends)

SCI期刊医学论文的图说明一般有一个小标题,按描述的具体内容可再分小标题如A…, B…,C…。用非常简洁、准确的完整句子或非完整句子描述图代表的内容和意义,并列出实验方法。

例如:

FIGURE 6 The effect of recombinant truncated C1INH on LPSbinding.A, Recombinant truncated C1INH (50µg/ml) had greatly reduced binding to LPS (175 ng/ml) as assessedby ELISA. B, FITC-conjugated LPS (175 ng/ml)binding to RAW 264.7 macrophages was not inhibited with recombinanttruncated C1INH (50 µg/ml; LPS binding, thick line; control, shadedfield). C, LPS (10 and 20 µg) clearly altered theelectrophoretic mobility of recombinant full-length C1INH (40µg/ml) as measured by native PAGE/Western blot (lanes1 and 2). D, LPS (10 and 20 µg) did notchange the electrophoretic mobility of recombinant truncated C1INH(50 µg/ml) as detected by native PAGE/Western blot (lanes1 and 2).  (From Journal ofImmunology)

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